Mammals - Wild Animals Online


Kingdom Animalia; Phylum: Chordata (Chordates), Subphylum: Vertebrata (Vertebrates)
Class: Mammals (Mammalia)





Mammals are the most developed class in the animal kingdom. They are over 200 million yeas old and lived even at the age of the dinosaurs. As their name reveals they feed their young with mammary glands. They give birth to live young and have hair compared to feathers or scales which other animal classes have.

Anatomy: From the anatomical point of view, their skeleton is in many ways similar to the human body. Their body is covered with a fur. They have got a bony skeleton. The spine can be divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and a tail part. The cervical consists of 7 parts / vertebrae (just like the humans), thoracic of 12-18 vertebrae and lumbar of 2-8 vertebrae. Sacral vertebrae are together fixed in the sacral bone. The number of vertebrae in the tail part may vary a lot. The first two vertebrae (atlas and axis) enable mammals to move their head to the sides (left / right) as well as up and down. Ribs are fixed to the thoracic vertebrae. They are also used as a great protection.

Physiology: Lungs consist of many small alveoli - this rapidly increases their inner surface. Diaphragm is between the thorax and the abdominal part. It also participates in breathing and is an inevitable inhaling muscle. The heart is made of four completely separated parts. There are two atriums and two ventricles. Deoxygenated blood flows through the right heart whereas the oxygenated blood flows through the left heart. So there are two separated blood circulations. The blood circulation starts in the right atrium and then the blood flows into the right ventricle. From the right ventricle the blood flows into the lungs where it is oxygenated. Consequently it flows into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle. From the left ventricle the oxygenated blood flows into the entire body to all organs. There it gives inevitable oxygen to tissues and last but not least the deoxygenated blood comes through veins into the right atrium. And in the right atrium it starts all over again. Mammals have got a constant body temperature, they are endothermic. They also do have sweat glands which enable them to cool themselves.
The alimentary canal starts with a mouth with teeth. Teeth have got different shape and different functions too. A food comes through the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach (gaster). Chemical digestion starts in stomach and is finished in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Pancreas and gall bladder participate in digestion. Gall helps to digest fat and pancreatic enzymes proteins and sugars. Intestunum tenue (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) participates (apart from digestion) in resorption too. The concentration of indigestible food takes place in colon. Only water is digested there. The alimentary canal ends as an anus.
Mammals have got pair of kidneys, which excrete toxic and abundant fluid. They are placed in the lumbar area on the both sides. Nervous system is extraordinary developed. The frontal part has got the most impact over other brain parts. Sensory organs are well developed as well.

Reproduction: There is always an internal fertilisation. Development of a new young takes place in the femaleís organ called uterus. During the intrauterine development the small young is/are connected to the motherís body with placenta. The placenta fulfils plenty of functions. Firstly it enables breathing, then nutrition and last but not least it excretes toxic substances. Intrauterine period is finished by giving birth. After the birth, a small offspring breaths an atmospheric air with its lungs and starts to suck motherís milk (=mammals).
Systematically we can divide Mammalia Class into two Suclasses: Prototheria (Monotremes) and Theria Subclass. Consequently Theria Subclass is divided into two other Infraclasses: Metatheria/Marsupialia Infraclass (Marsiupial mammals) and Eutheria/Placentalia Infraclass (Placenal mammals).

Prototheria (Monotremes) are primitive mammals. They live in Australia and nearby islands. They still have got some features reminding of birds. Jaws are prolonged. Alimentary tract, secretory and sex organs have the same end called cloaca. They lay eggs and small ones suck motherís milk, however nipples are not developed. This Subclass includes animals such as Ornithorhynchus and Echidna (Spiny anteater).

Metatheria/Marsupialia Infraclass (Marsiupial mammals) includes animals for instance Macropus (kangaroo), Didelphis, Notoryctes, Petaurus, Phascolaretos (koala). Females have got 2 uteruses and a special sack (marsupium) on the abdomen. There is an underdeveloped placenta in the uterus and cannot enable the full foetus development. Therefore Marsupial mammals give birth to immature small young. Their development continues and is finished in a unique marsupial pouch outside the motherís belly which also contains nipples.

Placentalia Infaclass include a huge number of animals. They are spread all around the world. They create a placenta, which enables foetus a complete intrauterine development. This infraclass can be also divided into several subcategories. Insectivora have teeth which are underdeveloped. Their brain is very small and hemispheres are smooth and do no contain any gyruses. Their food mainly consists of insects. This group includes Erinaceus (hedgehog) and a Mole (Talpa). Chiroptera (Bats) are mammals which are able to fly! Their body structure is ideal for flying (strong clavicles, long fingers etc.). Their sense of hearing is developed exceptionally well. They move by using echolocation. On the other hand their sight is very poor. Edentata: these animals live in South America. Their teeth are very weak. Rodentia: their jaws are very strong and include sharp teeth. They breed several times per year and have plenty of small young. These young mature rather early. This group includes a mouse (Mus), a rat (Ratus) etc. Carnivora have very strong jaws with knife-sharp teeth. This group includes animals such as a cat (Felis), a lion (Felis), a jaguar (Panthera), a tiger (Felis), a dog (Canis), a fox (Vulpes), a bear (Ursus), hyena (Hyena) etc. Pinnipedia is another group. These animals live in water (for instance: a seal (Phoca). Whales (Cetacea) also live in water. They have got a huge amount of fat located under the skin. It is a great isolation layer. This group can be divided into two subgroups: whales with teeth (e.g.: Balaena) and whales without any teeth (e.g.: a dolphin (Delphinus)). Horses (Equus), rhinos (Rhinoceros) belong to Perissodactyla group. Artiodactyla have only four fingers. The first finger (thumb) is not developed. Almost the entire weight of the animal is on the third and the fourth finger. Some animals from this group have got only a simple stomach (Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus)) whereas other animals have got a stomach made of four parts (e.g.: a bison (Bison), a deer (Cervus), a camel (Camelus) etc.). Elephants belong to Proboscidae.
Primates (Primates) have got five fingers on each extremity. The thumb can oppose other fingers which enable to grab things. Some primates have nails others claws. Lemurs (Lemur), Monkeys (Simiae) have got nails. Their brain is well developed then hemispheres are big and contain gyruses. Some animals have a wide nose septum (Hapalidae) whereas others a thin one (Catarrhina). Others have only a subtle nose (e.g.: Gorillas (Gorilla), Orang-utans (Pongo)).




Listed mammals:

Addax ( Addax nasomaculatus )
African Elephant ( Loxodonta africana )
American Bison ( Bison bison )
American Black Bear ( Ursus americanus )
Asian Elephant ( Elephas maximus )
Asian Wild Ass ( Equus hemionus kulan )
Bactrian Camel ( Camelus ferus bactrianus )
Barbary Macaque ( Macaca sylvanus )
Barbary Sheep ( Ammotragus lervia )
Beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )
Binturong ( Arctictis binturong )
Blackbuck ( Antilope cervicapra )
Black Gibbon ( Hylobates concolor )
Black-tailed Prairie Dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus )
Blesbok ( Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi )
Blue Whale ( Balaenoptera musculus )
Bobcat ( Lynx rufus )
Bongo ( Tragelaphus euryceros )
Bottlenose Dolphin ( Tusiops truncatus )
Brazilian Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris )
Brown Bear / Grizzly ( Ursus arctos )
Bush Pig ( Potamochoerus porcus )
Canadian Lynx ( Lynx canadensis )
Cape Buffalo ( Syncerus caffer caffer )
Cape Ground Squirrel ( Xerus inauris )
Capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris )
Caracal ( Felis caracal )
Caucasian Ibex ( Capra caucasica )
Clouded Tiger ( Neofelis nebulosa )
Common Gundi ( Ctenodactylus Gundi )
Common Hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibius )
Cotton-top Tamarin ( Saguinus oedipus )
Cuban Hutia ( Capromys pilorides )
DeBrazza's Guenon ( Cercopithecus neglectus )
Degu ( Octodon degus )
Eastern Gray Squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis )
Eurasian Badger ( Meles meles )
Eurasian Red Squirrel ( Sciurus vulgaris )
European Bison ( Bison bonasus )
European Ground Squirrel ( Spermophilus citellus )
European Hare ( Lepus europaeus )
European Wild Hog ( Sus scrofa )
Fallow Deer ( Dama dama )
Fennec Fox ( Fennecus zerda )
Fishing Cat ( Prionailurus viverrinus )
Geoffroy's Spider Monkey ( Ateles geoffroyi )
Giraffe
Grey Wolf ( Canis lupus )
Guanaco ( Lama guanicoe )
Himalayan Tahr ( Hemitragus jemlahicus )
Hoolock Gibbon ( Hylobates Hoolock )
Cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus )
Chinchilla ( Chinchilla laniger )
Indian Rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis )
Jaguar ( Penthera onca )
Killer Whale ( Orcinus orca )
Koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus )
Lasser Panda ( Ailurus fulgens )
Leopard ( Panthera pardus )
Lion ( Panthera Leo )
Llama ( Lama glama )
Macedonian Dwarf Donkey ( Equus africanus f. asinus )
Malayan Sun Bear ( Helarctos malayanus )
Malayan Tapir ( Tapirus indicus )
Maned Wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus )
Mara ( Dolichotis patagonum )
Meerkat ( Suricata suricatta )
Moose ( Alces alces )
Muflon ( Ovis musimon )
Nile Lechwe ( Kobus megaceros )
North American Porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum )
Nutria ( Myocastor coypus )
Ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis )
Okapi ( Okapia johnstoni )
Orangutan ( Pongo pygmaeus )
Oryx Beisa ( Oryx gazella beisa )
Otter ( Lutra lutra )
Panda Bear ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca )
Pere David's Deer ( Elaphurus davidianus )
Pig-tail Macaque ( Macaca nemestrina )
Plains Zebra ( Equus burchelli )
Polar Bear ( Thalarctos maritimus )
Puma ( Felis concolor )
Pygmy Hippopotamus ( Hexaprotodon liberiensis )
Raccoon ( Procyon lotor )
Ratel ( Mellivora capensis )
Red Coati ( Nasua narica rufa )
Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes )
Red Kangaroo ( Macropus rufus )
Red-necked Wallaby ( Wallabia rufogrisea )
Red-ruffed Lemur ( Varecia rubra )
Reeve's Muntiac ( Muntiaca reevesi )
Reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus )
Reticulated Giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis )
Ring-tailed Coati ( Nasua nasua )
Ring-tailed Lemur ( Lemur catta )
Rock Hyrax ( Procavia capensis )
Roe Deer ( Capreolus capreolus )
Roosevelt Elk / Wapiti ( Cervus elaphus roosevelti )
Rothschild Giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildii )
Scimitar-horned Oryx ( Oryx dammah )
Sea Otter ( Enhydra lutris lutris )
Siamang ( Hylobates syndactylus )
Siberiean Tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica )
Sitatunga ( Tragelaphus spekei )
Snow Leopard ( Panthera uncia )
South American Sea Lion ( Otaria byronia )
Southern White Rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum )
Spectacled Bear ( Tremarctos ornatus )
Spotted Hyena ( Crocuta crocuta )
The Asiatic Bear ( Ursus thibenatus )
Thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus )
Walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus )
Waterbuck ( Kobus ellipsiprymnus )
Western Lowland Gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla )
West Indian Manatee ( Ttrichechus manatus )
Wild Cat ( Felis silvestris )
Wolverine ( Gulo luscus )
Yellow Mongoose ( Cynictis penicillata )



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Insect (Insecta)
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Mammals (Mammalia)
Addax
African Elephant
American Bison
American Black Bear
Asian Elephant
Asian Wild Ass
Bactrian Camel
Barbary Macaque
Barbary Sheep
Beluga
Binturong
Blackbuck
Black Gibbon
Black-tailed Prairie Dog
Blesbok
Blue Whale
Bobcat
Bongo
Bottlenose Dolphin
Brazilian Tapir
Brown Bear / Grizzly
Bush Pig
Canadian Lynx
Cape Buffalo
Cape Ground Squirrel
Capybara
Caracal
Caucasian Ibex
Clouded Tiger
Common Gundi
Common Hippopotamus
Cotton-top Tamarin
Cuban Hutia
DeBrazza's Guenon
Degu
Eastern Gray Squirrel
Eurasian Badger
Eurasian Red Squirrel
European Bison
European Ground Squirrel
European Hare
European Wild Hog
Fallow Deer
Fennec Fox
Fishing Cat
Geoffroy's Spider Monkey
Giraffe
Grey Wolf
Guanaco
Himalayan Tahr
Hoolock Gibbon
Cheetah
Chinchilla
Indian Rhinoceros
Jaguar
Killer Whale
Koala
Lasser Panda
Leopard
Lion
Llama
Macedonian Dwarf Donkey
Malayan Sun Bear
Malayan Tapir
Maned Wolf
Mara
Meerkat
Moose
Muflon
Nile Lechwe
North American Porcupine
Nutria
Ocelot
Okapi
Orangutan
Oryx Beisa
Otter
Panda Bear
Pere David's Deer
Pig-tail Macaque
Plains Zebra
Polar Bear
Puma
Pygmy Hippopotamus
Raccoon
Ratel
Red Coati
Red Fox
Red Kangaroo
Red-necked Wallaby
Red-ruffed Lemur
Reeve's Muntiac
Reindeer
Reticulated Giraffe
Ring-tailed Coati
Ring-tailed Lemur
Rock Hyrax
Roe Deer
Roosevelt Elk / Wapiti
Rothschild Giraffe
Scimitar-horned Oryx
Sea Otter
Siamang
Siberiean Tiger
Sitatunga
Snow Leopard
South American Sea Lion
Southern White Rhinoceros
Spectacled Bear
Spotted Hyena
The Asiatic Bear
Thylacine
Walrus
Waterbuck
Western Lowland Gorilla
West Indian Manatee
Wild Cat
Wolverine
Yellow Mongoose
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