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Kingdom Animalia; Phylum: Chordata (Chordates), Subphylum: Vertebrata (Vertebrates)
Class: Birds (Aves)

The vast majority of these vertebrates move by flying. Birds have a unique cover – feathers. These consist of a special substance called keratin which gives birds extraordinary skills. Birds are extremely old animals. First birds lived 140 million years ago! These days there are approximately 8 600 different birds’ types which live and fly all around the world.

Anatomy: Their skeleton is completely bony and aerodynamically suitable for flying. Long bones are tubular and therefore extremely light. The skull is fixed to the backbone only with one vertebra just like in the Reptilia Class. A beak is created by prolonging the upper and the lower jaw. A neck is quite long and very movable. A chest bone is wide with a number of muscles, especially those responsible for flying, are fixed to it. Even the bone in the wings is attached to the chest bone. The birds’ body is covered with feathers. It is extremely light and on the other hand it is also a thermal isolation. Feather lies in two layers.

Physiology: The birds breathe with lungs however these cannot be extended. The lung capacity is extended by five pairs of air sacks which store the air. These sacks are located next to some inner organs and tubular bones. Some birds have got even a vocal organ. The heart is divided into two atriums and two ventricles. Deoxygenated blood flows through the right heart whereas the oxygenated blood flows through the left heart. So there are two separated blood circulations. The blood circulation starts in the right atrium and then the blood flows into the right ventricle. From the right ventricle the blood flows into the lungs where it is oxygenated. Subsequently it flows into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle. From the left ventricle the oxygenated blood flows into the entire body to all organs. There it gives inevitable oxygen to tissues and last but not least the deoxygenated blood comes through veins into the right atrium. In the right atrium it starts all over again. Birds belong to endothermic animals, so their body temperature is stable and is not influenced by the environment.
The average body temperature is about 42 Celsius degrees. In the brain we can observe a huge development especially in the frontal part. Birds use their instinct very much, besides they take care of their offspring. Their orientation skills are remarkable too.

Life span: All birds lay eggs. There are three main layers in the egg. Amnion is filled with amniotic fluid (reptiles have got amnion as well), then chorion and alantois. Alantois is used as a respiratory and a secretory organ. The female birds have got only one ovary. There are often differences in sexes. This is called sexual dimorphism.
The Bird Class can be divided into two infraclasses: Saururae and Ornithurae.
Infraclass Saururae includes already extinct birds. They had been a link between reptiles and birds. They were able to climb trees but unable to fly. Their jaws were pretty sharp.
The second Infraclass includes few extinct birds and also a number of birds which can be seen all around the world. This infraclass can be divided into several categories such as: Ratitae, Natantes and Volantes. Ratitae: These bords cannot fly. Their wings are not developed enough. They can walk and run therefore their extremities are very strong. Nantes: cannot fly as well. They live mostly in water in the Antarctica. They use their extremities mainly for swimming (for instance: penguins (Phenisciformes)). Volantes: They are the biggest category of all living birds these days. They can fly. This group can be also divided into several subcategories such as: Columbiformes (e.g.: pigeons (Columba)), Anseriformes (swans (Cyngus)), Ralliformes, Pelecaniformes (pelicans (Pelecasnus)), Ciconiiformes, Cuculiformes, Falconiformes (eagle (Aquilla)), Strigiformes (Owels (Stix)), Coraciaformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes (sparrow (Passer)).

Bird Class includes a number of animals which differ in size, food habits, locomotion, vocalization, colour etc. Some birds take care of their small young others do not. All in all birds have always been a great fascination for humans.

Listed birds:

Abdim's Stork ( Ciconia abdimii )
African Openbill ( Anastomus lamelligerus )
African Penguin ( Spheniscus demersus )
Atlantic Puffin ( Fratercula arctica )
Avocet ( Recurvirosta avosetta )
Australian Brush Turkey ( Alectura lathami )
Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus )
Barn Owl ( Tyto alba )
Bearded Vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus )
Bee-eater (Merops apiaster)
Black-billed Magpie ( Pica pica )
Blackbird ( Turdus merula )
Black Crowned Crane ( Balearica pavonina )
Black-Headed Gull ( Larus ridibundus )
Black Stork ( Ciconia nigra )
Black Swan ( Cygnus atratus )
Black-winged Red Bishop ( Euplectes hordeaceus )
Blue and Yellow Macaw ( Ara ararauna )
Blue Crane ( Anthropoides paradisea )
Blue tit (Parus caeruleus)
Canada Goose ( Branta canadensis )
Carrion Crow ( Corvus corone )
Cattle Egret ( Bubulcus ibis )
Cockatiel ( Nymphiscus hollandicus )
Collared Dove ( Sreptopelia decaocto )
Common Bronzewing ( Phaps chalcoptera )
Common Kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus )
Common Kiwi / Brown Kiwi ( Apteryx australis )
Common Linnet ( Carduelis cannabina )
Common Magpie ( Pica pica )
Common Rhea ( Rhea americana )
Common Starling / European Starling ( Sturnus vulgaris )
Crane ( Grus grus )
Crested caracara / Common caracara (Caracara plancus)
Darwin's Rhea ( Rhea pennata )
Demoiselle Crane ( Anthropoides virgo )
Diamond Dove ( Stictopeleia cuneata )
Eagle Owl / Eurasian Eagle ( Meleagris gallopavo )
Egyptian Vulture ( Neophron perenopterus )
Emperor Goose ( Anser canagicus )
Emperor penguin ( Aptenodytes forsteri )
Emu ( Dromaius novaehollandiae )
Eurasian Black Vulture ( Aegypius monachus )
Eurasian Coot ( Fulica atra )
Eurasian golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus)
Eurasian Griffon ( Gyps fulvus )
Eurasian Jackdaw ( Corvus monedula )
Eurasian Nuthatch ( Sitta europaea )
Eurasian Spoonbill ( Platalea leucorodia )
Golden Oriole ( Oriolus oriolus )
Goosandeer ( Mergus merganser )
Gray Crowned Crane ( Balearica regulorum gibbericeps )
Great Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo )
Great Crested Grebe ( Podiceps cristatus )
Greated Necklaced Laughingtrush ( Garrulax pectoralis )
Greater Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus ruber ruber )
Great Grey Owl ( Strix nebulosa )
Great Tit ( Parus major )
Great White Egret ( Egretta alba )
Great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus)
Green Woodpecker ( Picus viridis )
Grey Heron ( Ardea cinerea )
Greylag Goose ( Anser anser )
Hadada Ibis ( Bostrychia hagedash )
House Martin ( Delichon urbica )
House Sparrow ( Passer domesticus )
Humboldt Penguin ( Spheniscus humboldti )
Chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs )
Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis)
India Blue Peafowl ( Pavo cristatus )
King Penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonica )
Lasser White-froted Goose ( Anser erythropus )
Laughing Kookaburra ( Dacelo novaeguinae )
Little Owl ( Athene noctua )
Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus )
Mallard ( Anas platyrhynchos )
Marabou Stork ( Leptoptilus crumeniferus )
Mute Swan ( Cygnus olor )
Night Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )
Northern Bald Ibis ( Geronticus eremita )
Ostrich ( Struthio camelus )
Purple Heron ( Ardea purpurea )
Red and Green Macaw ( Ara chloroptera )
Red-backed Shrike ( Lanius collurio )
Red-breasted Goose ( Branta ruficolis )
Red-crested Pochard ( Netta rufina )
Red-crowned Crane ( Grus japonensis )
Red-legged Partridge ( Alectoris rufa )
Redshank ( Tringa totanus )
Ringed Teal ( Callonetta leucophrys )
Rockhopper Penguin ( Eudyptes chrysocome )
Sacred Ibis ( Threskiornis aethiopicus )
Sand Martin / Bank Swallow ( Riparia riparia )
Scarlet Ibis ( Eudocimus ruber )
Scarlet Macaw ( Ara Macao )
Secretary Bird ( Sagittarius serpentarius )
Senegal Wattled Plover ( Vanellus senegallus )
Sheld Duck ( Tadorna tadorna )
Snowy Owl ( Nyctea scandiaca )
Southern Ground Hornbill ( Bucorvus leadbeateri )
Southern Screamer ( Chauna torquata )
Spectacled Owl ( Pulsatrix perspicillata )
Steller's Sea-eagle ( Haliaeetus pelagicus )
Stone Curlew ( Burhinus oedicnemus )
Sulphure Crested Cockatoo ( Cacatua galerita )
Swallow / Barn Swallow ( Hirundo rustica )
Tengmalm's Owl ( Aegolius funereus )
Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco)
Tree Sparrow ( Passer montanus )
Ural Owl ( Strix uralensis )
Wandering Albatross ( Diomedea exulans )
White-bellied go-away-bird ( Corythaixoides leucogaster )
White Ibis ( Eudocimus albus )
White-naped Crane ( Grus vipio )
White Stork ( Ciconia ciconia )
White Wagtail ( Motacilla alba )
White-winged Wood Duck ( Cairina scutulata )
Wild Turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo )
Wood Pigeon ( Columba palumbus )
Yellow-billed Stork ( Mycteria ibis )

Insect (Insecta)
Fish (Osteichties) & Sharks
Amphibians (Amphibia)
Reptiles (Reptilia)
Birds (Aves)
Abdim's Stork
African Openbill
African Penguin
Atlantic Puffin
Australian Brush Turkey
Bald Eagle
Barn Owl
Bearded Vulture
Black-billed Magpie
Black Crowned Crane
Black-Headed Gull
Black Stork
Black Swan
Black-winged Red Bishop
Blue and Yellow Macaw
Blue Crane
Blue tit
Canada Goose
Carrion Crow
Cattle Egret
Collared Dove
Common Bronzewing
Common Kestrel
Common Kiwi / Brown Kiwi
Common Linnet
Common Magpie
Common Rhea
Common Starling
Crested caracara / Common caracara
Darwin's Rhea
Demoiselle Crane
Diamond Dove
Eagle Owl / Eurasian Eagle
Egyptian Vulture
Emperor Goose
Emperor penguin
Eurasian Black Vulture
Eurasian Coot
Eurasian golden oriole
Eurasian Griffon
Eurasian Jackdaw
Eurasian Nuthatch
Eurasian Spoonbill
Golden Oriole
Gray Crowned Crane
Great Cormorant
Great Crested Grebe
Greated Necklaced Laughingtrush
Greater Flamingo
Great Grey Owl
Great Tit
Great White Egret
Great white pelican
Green Woodpecker
Grey Heron
Greylag Goose
Hadada Ibis
House Martin
House Sparrow
Humboldt Penguin
Chilean Flamingo
India Blue Peafowl
King Penguin
Lasser White-froted Goose
Laughing Kookaburra
Little Owl
Long-eared Owl
Marabou Stork
Mute Swan
Night Heron
Northern Bald Ibis
Purple Heron
Red and Green Macaw
Red-backed Shrike
Red-breasted Goose
Red-crested Pochard
Red-crowned Crane
Red-legged Partridge
Ringed Teal
Rockhopper Penguin
Sacred Ibis
Sand Martin / Bank Swallow
Scarlet Ibis
Scarlet Macaw
Secretary Bird
Senegal Wattled Plover
Sheld Duck
Snowy Owl
Southern Ground Hornbill
Southern Screamer
Spectacled Owl
Steller's Sea-eagle
Stone Curlew
Sulphure Crested Cockatoo
Swallow / Barn Swallow
Tengmalm's Owl
Toco Toucan
Tree Sparrow
Ural Owl
Wandering Albatross
White-bellied go-away-bird
White Ibis
White-naped Crane
White Stork
White Wagtail
White-winged Wood Duck
Wild Turkey
Wood Pigeon
Yellow-billed Stork
Mammals (Mammalia)
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